We are very pleased to present the legal roundup for February 2021 – September 2021, that contains publications on issues related armed groups and international law, non-international armed conflict and the relationship between IHL and IHRL. It was prepared by Andrea Farrés, and it was finalised with input from Ezequiel Heffes and Katharine Fortin.
If you have a 2021 publication which you think should be included in this roundup, please do not hesitate to contact the editors of the blog, Katharine Fortin and Ezequiel Heffes.
Please note that due to paywalls and your institution’s permissions, the given link may not always take you to the text of the article. The Armed Groups and International law blog has published legal roundups since 2012. For previous versions of the legal roundup, see here.
Armed Non-State Actors, NIACs and International Law
Asal, Victor and Nagel, Robert U., Control over Bodies and Territories: Insurgent Territorial Control and Sexual Violence, Security Studies, Volume 30, Issue 1, 136-158.
Bagheri, Saeed, International Law and the War with Islamic State: Challenges for Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello, Hart Publishing, 2021.
Berkes, Antal, International Human Rights Law Beyond State Territorial Control, Cambridge University Press.
Bolte, Brandon, The Puzzle of Militia Containment in Civil War, International Studies Quarterly, March 2021, Volume 65, Issue 1, 250-261.
Bouhlel, Ferdaous and Guichaoua, Yvan, Norms, Non-combatants’ agency and restraint in jihadi violence in northern mali, International Interactions.
Duursma, Allard and Fliervoet, Feike, Fuelling Factionalism? The Impact of Peace Processes on Rebel Group Fragmentation in Civil Wars, Journal of Conflict Resolution, April 2021, Volume 65, Issue 4, 778 – 812.
Jo, Hyeran, Alley, Joshua K., Park, Yohan and Jordan, Soren, Signaling restraint: international engagement and rebel groups’ commitments to international law, International Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 5, 928-954.
Mantilla, Giovanni, Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict, Cornell University Press, 2020.
Moyn, Samuel, Humane: How the United States Abandoned Peace and Reinvented War, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2021.
Pendle, Naomi, Competing authorities and norms of restraint: governing community-embedded armed groups in South Sudan, International Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 5, 873-897.
Stein, Arthur and Cantin, Marc-Olivier, Crowding out the field: External Support to Insurgents and the Intensity of Inter-rebel Fighting in Civil War, International Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 4, 662-691.
Arai-Takahashi, Yutaka, Thresholds in Flux—the Standard for Ascertaining the Requirement of Organization for Armed Groups under International Humanitarian Law Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 79 – 115.
Bradley, Martha M., Additional Protocol II: Elevating the minimum threshold of intensity? International Review of the Red Cross, First View, 1-28.
Derejko, Nathan, A Forever War? Rethinking the Temporal Scope of Non-International Armed Conflict, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Summer 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, 347-376.
Hamza, Marishet M., Fragmented Armed Groups in International Humanitarian Law, Humanitäres Völkerrecht, June 2021, Issue 1-2, 98 – 111.
Nejbir, Deniz Arbet, Applying Humanitarian Law: A Review of the Legal Status of the Turkey–Kurdistan Workers’ Party (pkk) Conflict, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 1, 37 – 70.
Fortin, Katharine, To Be or Not to Be?: Legal Identity in Crisis in Non-International Armed Conflicts, Human Rights Quarterly, February 2021, Volume 43, Number 1, 29-69
Krtsch, Roman, The Tactical Use of Civil Resistance by Rebel Groups: Evidence from India’s Maoist Insurgency, Journal of Conflict Resolution, August-September 2021, Volume 65, Issue 7, 1251 – 1277.
Jackson, Ashley, Negotiating Survival. Civilian-Insurgent Relations in Afghanistan, Hurst, 2021.
Provost, René, Rebel Courts. The Administration of Justice by Armed Insurgents, Oxford University Press, 2021.
Rodenhäuser, Tilman, The legal protection of persons living under the control of non-State armed groups, International Review of the Red Cross, First View, 1-30.
Sosnowski, Marika, Citizenship Constellations in Syria, MENA’s Frozen Conflicts, November 2020, 68-73.
Tokdemir, Efe, Sedashov, Evgeny, Hande Ogutcu-Fu, Sema, Moreno Leon, Carlos E., Jeremy Berkowitz, and Akcinaroglu, Seden, Rebel Rivalry and the Strategic Nature of Rebel Group Ideology and Demands, Journal of Conflict Resolution, April 2021, Volume 65, Issue 4, 729 – 758.
Non-State Armed Groups, International Responsibility and Reparations
Greenman, Kathryn, State Responsibility and Rebels. The History and Legacy of Protecting Investment Against Revolution, Cambridge University Press.
Herman, Olivia, Beyond the state of play: Establishing a duty of non-State armed groups to provide reparations, International Review of the Red Cross.
Khaitan, Bulbul, Alternative to the Existing Rule of Attribution for Use of Force by Non-State Actors in an Armed Conflict, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 41 – 78.
Moffet, Luke, Violence and repair: the practice and challenges of non-State armed groups engaging in reparations, International Review of the Red Cross.
Jus ad Bellum
Huang, Reyko, and Ayatollahi Tabaar, Mohammad, We Are All Coethnics: State Identities and Foreign Interventions in Violent Conflict, Journal of Global Security Studies, September 2021, Volume 6, Issue 3, 1-17.
Ilgaz, Huseyin, Qui bono? Foreign military, economic, diplomatic interventions and the termination of civil wars: An integrative approach, International Interactions, 2021.
Redaelli, Chiara, Intervention in Civil Wars: Effectiveness, Legitimacy, and Human Rights, Hart Publishing, 2021.
International Criminal Law
Clapham, Andrew, Thinking Beyond the Offence of Torture, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.
Cormier, Monique, Testing the boundaries of the ICC’s territorial jurisdiction in the Afghanistan situation, Questions of International Law, 2021, Issue 78, 43-56.
Eatwell, Tatyana and Powles, Steven QC, ‘Quasi-governers’ and questions relating to impunity and legal certainty’, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021
Gabriele, Chiara, Matheson, Kelly, and Vazquez Llorente, Raquel, The Role of Mobile Technology in Documenting International Crimes: The Affaire Castro et Kizito in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Journal of International Criminal Justice, March 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, 101-130.
Gaeta, Paola, ‘Another Step in What it Means to Be Human’ — Prohibition v. Criminalization of Torture as a Private Act’, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.
Le Moli, Genevra, Torture by Non-State Actors: Four Inquiries, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.
MacNeil, Gillian, Legality Matters: Crimes Against Humanity and the Problems and Promise of the Prohibition on Other Inhumane Acts, Asser Press, 2021.
Nowak, Manfred, Can Private Actors Torture? An Interview with Manfred Nowak, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.
Pottle, Émilie, What is torture? Making the Case for Expanding the Definition to Include Private Individuals as Perpetrators, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.
Riccardi, Alice, The Palestine Decision and Territorial Jurisdiction of the ICC: Is the Court Finding its Inner Voice?,Questions of International Law, 2021, Issue 78, 23-42.
Sander, Barrie, Doing Justice to History: Confronting the Past in International Criminal Courts, Oxford University Press, 2021.
Tan, Yudan, The Rome Statute as Evidence of Customary International Law, Brill Nijhoff, 2021.
Targeting and Detention
Sutton, Rebecca, The Humanitarian Civilian: How the Idea of Distinction Circulates Within and Beyond International Humanitarian Law, Oxford University Press, 2021.
Tinsae Birhane, Fikire, Targeting of Children in Non-International Armed Conflicts, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Summer 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, 388-400.
Teleki, Cristina, Detainee Operations in Ukraine: Risk or Opportunity for International Law?, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 1, 111 – 140.
Tucker, Colin, The Effect of Aerial Bombardment on Insurgent Civilian Victimization, Security Studies, Volume 30, Number 3, 450 – 483.
Hoffberger-Pippan, Elisabeth, Less-Lethal Weapons under International Law: A Three-Dimensional Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2021.
Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding
Assouline, Philippe, and Trager, Robert, Concessions for Concession’s Sake: Injustice, Indignation, and the Construction of Intractable Conflict in Israel–Palestine, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2021, Volume 65, Issue 9, 1489 – 1520.
Bolte, Brandon, Joo, Minie M., and Mukherjee, Bumba, Security Consolidation in the Aftermath of Civil War: Explaining the Fates of Victorious Militias, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2021, Volume 65, Issue 9, 1459 – 1488.
Daniels, Lesley-Ann, Stick Then Carrot: When Do Governments Give Amnesty during Civil War?, International Studies Quarterly, June 2021, Volume 65, Issue 2, 401–408.
Fox, Gregory H., Old and New Peace Agreements, Seton Hall Law Review, 2022, Volume 52, Issue 3, forthcoming.
Giraldo, Marta Lucía, and Jerónimo Tobón, Daniel, Personal archives and transitional justice in Colombia: the Fonds of Fabiola Lalinde and Mario Agudelo, 2021, International Journal of Human Rights, Volume 25, Issue 3, 529-549.
Iverson, Jens, Jus Post Bellum: The Rediscovery, Foundations, and Future of the Law of Transforming War into Peace, Brill Nijhoff, 2021.
Margherita, Belgioioso, Di Salvatore, Jessica, and Pinckney, Jonathan, Tangled up in Blue: The Effect of UN Peacekeeping on Nonviolent Protests in Post–Civil War Countries, International Studies Quarterly, March 2021, Volume 65, Issue 1, 1-15.
Menninga, Elizabeth J, and Prorok, Alyssa K, Battles and Bargains: Escalation, Commitment, and Negotiations in Civil War, International Studies Quarterly, June 2021, Volume 65, Issue 2, 406–422.
Müller, C Sophia, The Role of Law in Enforcing Peace Agreements: Lessons Learned from Colombia, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 117 – 156.
Barbelet, Veronique, Conflict, instability and hunger: breaking the cycle in the Central African Republic, Overseas Development Institute
Bongard, Pascal, with the collaboration of Bellal, Annyssa, From Words to Deeds. A Research Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (Mouvement National de Libération de l’Azawad, MNLA), Mali.
Gaston, Erica, Regulating irregular actors: Can due diligence checks mitigate the risks of working with non-state and substate forces?, Overseas Development Institute
Heffes, Ezequiel, with the collaboration of Bellal, Annyssa, From Words to Deeds. A Research Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms. The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army, FARC-EP), Colombia.
Smith, Graeme, and Mansfield, David, War gains: How the economic benefits of the conflict are distributed in Afghanistan and the implications for peace. A case study on Nimroz province, Overseas Development Institute
A Decade of Loss: Syria’s Youth After Ten Years of Crisis, International Committee of the Red Cross
Allies, Partners and Proxies: An Introduction to Support Relationships in Armed Conflict, International Committee of the Red Cross