Legal Roundup February 2022 – September 2022

About the author(s):

Begümhan I. Simsir is a policy and research intern at the IFRC. She holds an LL.M. in IHL and human rights from the Geneva Academy. Her LL.M. thesis focused on the protection of wounded and sick hors de combat with a focus on mental health. She graduated from the Turkish German University Law School with a thesis focused on the protection of girl soldiers during and after armed conflicts. She has worked with various organizations, including Human Rights Measurement Initiative, Generation Human Rights, UNESCO, Airwars and the International Review of the Red Cross.

We are very pleased to present the legal roundup for February 2022 – September 2022, that contains publications on issues related armed groups and international law, non-international armed conflict and transitional justice. It was prepared by Begüm Simsir, and it was finalised with input from Ezequiel Heffes, Katharine Fortin and Andrea Farrés.

If you have a 2022 publication which you think should be included in this roundup, please do not hesitate to contact the editors of the blog, Katharine Fortin and Ezequiel Heffes.

Please note that due to paywalls and your institution’s permissions, the given link may not always take you to the text of the article. The Armed Groups and International law blog has published legal roundups since 2012. For previous versions of the legal roundup, see here.

Armed Non-State Actors, NIACs and International Law

Breslawski, Jori, “The Shortcomings of International Humanitarian Law in Access Negotiations: New Strategies and Ways Forward”, International Studies Review, 2022, Volume 24, Issue 1, 1-15.

Gill, Terry D., “Reconciling the Irreconcilable: Some Thoughts on Belligerent Equality in Non-international Armed Conflicts”, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2020, vol. 51, 343 – 357.

Heffes, Ezequiel, “International human rights law and non-State armed groups: The (de)construction of an international legal discourse”, in Research Handbook on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, 2020, 265-287.

Kleffner, Jann J., “The unilateralization of international humanitarian law”, International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Longworth, Sally, “Symbiosis in violence: A case study from Sierra Leone of the international humanitarian law implications of parties to the conflict engaging in organized crime”, International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Mignot-Mahdavi, Rebecca, “Rethinking direct participation in hostilities and continuous combat function in light of targeting members of terrorist non-State armed groups”, International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Niyo, Joshua, “Legal fragmentation and obligations for armed non-state actors: can international humanitarian law and international human rights law learn from each other?” in Weiß, Norman, and Zimmermann, Andreas, Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Ahead, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, 32-53.

Phelan, Alexandra, ed. ‘Terrorism, Gender and Women: Towards an Integrated Research Agenda’, Routledge 2022.

Sassòli, Marco, “How to develop international humanitarian law taking armed groups into account?The Military Law and the Law of War Review, 2022, Volume 1, 71-88.

Sassòli, Marco, “How will international humanitarian law develop in the future” International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Conflict classification

Fernanda Quispe Espirilla, Oliver Florian Huarachi Coquira, Milagros Maribel Rojas Blas, “¿Existió un conflicto armado no internacional (CANI) entre el Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) y el Estado Peruano?”, Revista Ius Inter Gentes, 2022, Número 3, 61-94.

Kalmanovitz, Pablo, “Can Organized Criminal Organizations be Non-State Parties to Armed Conflict” International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Osasona, Tosin, “The question of definition: Armed Banditry in Nigeria’s North West in the Context of International Humanitarian Law’ International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Padin, Juan Francisco, “Opening Pandora’s box: The case of Mexico and the threshold of non-international armed conflicts”, International Review of the Red Cross, 2022, First View.

Rebel governance

Brenner, David, and Tazzioli, Martina, “Defending Society, Building the Nation: Rebel Governance as Competing Biopolitics”, International Studies Quarterly, 2022, Volume 66, Issue 2, 1-12.

Breslawski, Jori, “Can Rebels Bolster Trust in the Government? Evidence from the Philippines”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2022, Advance Access.

Fortin, Katharine, “The Procedural Right to a Remedy when the State has Left the Building? A Reflection on Armed Groups, Courts and Domestic Law”, Journal of Human Rights Practice, 2022.

Furlan, Marta, “State Weakness, al-Qa’ida, and Rebel Governance: Yemen from the Arab Spring until 2022”Middle East Journal, 2022, 9-28.

Liu, Shelley X., “Control, Coercion and Cooptation: How Rebels Govern after Winning Civil War”, World Politics, 2022, Volume 74, Issue 1, 37-76.

Spadaro, Alessandra, “From Outlaws to Judges: Armed Groups and the Administration of Justice”, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2022.

Weigand, Florian, Waiting for Dignity: Legitimacy and Authority in Afghanistan, Colombia University Press, 2022.

Yaniv Voller, “Rethinking armed groups and order: Syria and the rise of militiatocracies”, International Affairs, Volume 98, Issue 3, May 2022, Pages 853–871.

Non-State Armed Groups, International Responsibility and Reparations

Alejandro José Velásquez Barrionuevo, Josselyn Roca Calderón, “A una década del conflicto armado no internacional en Siria”, Revista Ius Inter Gentes, 2022, Número 3, 165-187.

Álvarez, Laura Íñigo, “Principios de responsabilidad internacional aplicables a los grupos armados: una propuesta en materia de atribución y reparaciones”, Hablemos de Derecho Internacional, 2022, Volume 1, 455 – 482

Heffes, Ezequiel, “Responsible Rebels: Exploring Correlations Between Compliance and Reparations in Non-International Armed Conflicts”, Journal of Human Rights Practice, 2022.

Kienou, Sanwé Médard. “The Applicability of International Humanitarian Law to Acts of Violence Perpetrated by Unidentified Armed Individuals in the Sahel: The Case of Burkina Faso.” International Review of the Red Cross 103, no. 918 (2021): 901–21.

Kieran McEvoy, Cheryl Lawther and Luke Moffett, “Changing the Script: Non-State Armed Groups, Restorative Justice and Reparations”, Journal of Human Rights Practice, 2022.

Quiñones Mogster, Daniel Elias, “Responsibility for supporting armed groups: a comparison between Common Article 1 to the Geneva Conventions and the ICCPR”, in Weiß, Norman, and Zimmermann, Andreas, Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: Challenges Ahead, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, 12-31.

Purificación Lozano López, Irene, “The Economic Exploitation of Territories Occupied by the Islamic State: Issues of International and Criminal Responsibility”, Revista Española de Derecho Internacional, 2022, Volume 74, Issue 1, 109-134.

Jus ad Bellum

Birkett, Daley J., “Another Hole in the Wall? Evaluating the Legality of Egypt’s 2017 Airstrikes Against Non-State Targets in Libya Under the Jus ad Bellum”, Netherlands International Law Review, 2022, Volume 69, 83-114.  

International Criminal Law

Block, Johannes, “Ordering as an Alternative to Indirect Co-Perpetration: Observations on the Ntaganda Case”, International Journal of Criminal Justice, 2022, Advance access.

Cupido, Marjolein, “The Control Theory as Multidimensional Concept: Reflections on the Ntaganda Appeal Judgment”, International Journal of Criminal Justice, 2022, Advance access.

Targeting and Detention

Farley, Benjamin, “Detainee Transfers and the Principle of Non-refoulement in Relation to ‘Non-belligerent Supporting States’ in Non-international Armed Conflicts”, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 27, Issue 2, Summer 2022, 185–209.

Grzebyk, Patrycja, Human and Non-Human Targets in Armed Conflicts, Cambridge University Press, 2022.

Heffes, Ezequiel, Detention by Non-State Armed Groups under International Law, Cambridge University Press, 2022.

Longobardo, Marco, Human Rights Council’s Fact-Finding Missions and the Assessment of Violations of the Principle of Precaution in Attack in the Absence of Cooperation by the Attacker (March 21, 2022). Gloria Gaggioli and Emilie Max (eds), The Role of Human Rights.

Stein, Arthur, “Committed sponsors: external support overtness and civilian targeting in civil wars”, European Journal of International Relations, 2022, Volume 28, Issue 2, 386-416.

Yip, Ka Lok, The Use of Force against Individuals in War under International Law, Oxford University Press, 2022.

Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding

Breslawski, Jori, “Can Rebels Bolster Trust in the Government? Evidence from the Philippines”, Journal of Conflict Resolution 2022.

Elfversson, Emma, and Nilsson, Desirée, “The pursuit of inclusion: Conditions for civil society inclusion in peace processes in communal conflicts in Kenya”, Cooperation and Conflict, 2022, Volume 57 Issue 2, 171-190.

Kane, Sean William, “Making Peace When the Whole World Has Come to Fight: The Mediation of Internationalized Civil Wars”, International Peacekeeping, 2022, Volume 29, Issue 2[AFJ1] , 177-203.

Reports

Bellal, Annyssa, Bongard, Pascal and Heffes, Ezequiel, From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms, September 2022

Huang, Reyko, Democracy on the Battlefield: Why Armed Groups Hold Elections, The Takeaway, Vol 13(5), August 2022.

Jackson, Ashley, Weigand, Florian, Mayhew Leigh and Bahiss Ibraheem, Rethinking Armed Group Control, Overseas Development Institute.

Civil Society Perspectives: ISIL in Africa – Key Developments and Trends, United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, April 2022.

“We Will Erase You from This Land” Crimes Against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing in Ethiopia’s Western Tigray Zone, Human Rights Watch.

“Everyone Wants Me Dead” Killings, Abductions, Torture, and Sexual Violence against LGBT People by Armed Groups in Iraq, Human Rights Watch.

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