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“Lawmaking Under Pressure” Book Symposium – A retelling of the history of internal conflicts: political fireworks, a post-script to the ‘dreaded article 1’ of API and an agenda for future research

Lawmaking under Pressure is a fascinating chronicle of the drafting history of the treaty provisions that apply to non-international armed conflict. Starting in 1863, the book asks why and how states, commonly concerned with their sovereignty – particularly regarding internal security affairs – have adopted legally binding international rules to constrain their ability to counter …

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“Lawmaking Under Pressure” Book Symposium – Squaring the Circle

The adoption of Common Article 3 (CA3) is one of the most mysterious stories in the making of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The final vote on the article took place in complete secrecy. Even while scholarship analyzing the Conventions’ past is expanding every year, scholars are still in the dark about Common Article 3’s genesis. …

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“Lawmaking Under Pressure” Book Symposium – Looking at the Other Side: The Contingent Origin of State Attitudes Towards Insurrection

Lawmaking Under Pressure is an incredibly detailed and insightful account of the history of non-international armed conflict. Giovanni Mantilla has certainly produced a book that will be mandatory reading for anyone looking into the history of not just Common Article 3, but the Geneva Conventions and their Protocols in general. The book seeks to explain …

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Lawmaking Under Pressure – book symposium

Over the coming week, along with Opinio Juris blog, we are delighted to co-host a symposium on Giovanni Mantilla’s latest book, Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict. Scholars and practitioners who will be joining the discussion include: Alonso Gurmendi, Neta Crawford, Kathryn Greenman, Alejandro Chehtman, Verity Robson, Charli Carpenter, Boyd van Dijk, Iris …

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Protracted Armed Violence as a Criterion for the Existence of Non-international Armed Conflict: IHL, ICL and beyond

Introduction Both authors of this blog were born in Yugoslavia, a country that no longer exists. Its dissolution started with the so-called Ten-Day War, which was fought from 27 June to 7 July 1991 between the Slovenian Territorial Defence and the Yugoslav People’s Army, resulting in some 60 fatalities and 330 wounded. There is a …

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Ongwen blog symposium: Culture as evidence and the construction of (un)certainty in the Dominic Ongwen trial

But the bottom line is, look, whom do you believe? (…) So this is really – that’s really a question at the end of the day. (Defence closing statements) Early on in the Ongwen trial the presiding judge Schmitt acknowledged that “things do not occur without any setting, any cultural, political, social setting and it’s …

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AGIL Podcast: Legal identity and birth registration in territory controlled by armed groups – a conversation

When I was chatting to my colleague (and long-time podcast-er) Willem Janssen at Utrecht University about how to make podcasts, he said that the best thing to do was “just go for it”. I have followed his advice and this first episode of the Armed Groups and International Law podcast is the result! It is …

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Sustainable Development Goal 16: can armed non-state actors act, or only obstruct?

Deborah Casalin is a PhD researcher in the Law and Development Research Group at the University of Antwerp Faculty of Law. She previously worked for several years in the humanitarian and development sectors, mainly on issues relating to IHL and human rights, and has previously published on armed group detention under IHL. This contribution draws …

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Negotiating Peace with (Proscribed) Non-State Armed Groups

“We don’t negotiate with criminals… We bring them to justice, not to the negotiating table”, responded an aide to the Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of Ethiopia to calls by the African Union on the Ethiopian government to enter into talks with the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) to end the conflict that erupted in the …

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Instant Non-international Armed Conflict? Classifying the situation in Northern Ethiopia under IHL

Introduction The seemingly sudden outburst of significant violence in Northern Ethiopia has raised international concern, as well as critical legal paradigmatic issues. Accordingly, in this post, we evaluate this current situation in Ethiopia in light of international humanitarian law (IHL) requirements for the classification of armed conflicts. The post argues that the carefully planned, coordinated, …

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